What is wrong with the fashion industry and how can we fix it?

Monday, July 26, 2021 by Erin MacDermott

Kule minyaka ingamashumi amathathu idlulileyo, ubudlelwane bethu neempahla zethu butshintshe kakhulu. Imikhwa yethu yokuthenga iyatshintshwa kwaye iingubo zethu zandiswa. Apho sasikhe sathenga kunye namaxesha onyaka, ngoku kuyinto eqhelekileyo ukufaka ingxowa-mali ngeveki ngeshintsho nje lokugcina epokothweni.

Ngelixa iingubo zethu zokugqabhuka zinokusenza sizive 'siphelele' okwethutyana, yindawo leyo ethwele iindleko ezonakalisayo. I-wardrobe yobuqu iye yaqina kwezopolitiko, kwaye lixesha lokuba sonke sinolwazi.

Yintoni iFashoni ekhawulezayo?

Image showing 50% discount signs in a fast fashion outlet with heaps ofclothes spread out on tablesaround.

Umthombo: Unsplash

Ukukhangela kuGoogle okubuyisa eyona nto ikhawulezayo kwimfashini ekhawulezileyo konke kuyichaza kwimeko yeempawu ezintathu eziphambili: i)Isantya semveliso ii)Ixabiso eliphantsis kunye iii)Inzuzo enkulu kwiinkampani ezijongana nabathengi ezichaphazelekayo.

Ukungena kweWikipedia, umzekelo, kuhamba ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

Imfashini ekhawulezileyo ligama elisetyenziselwa ukuchaza inzuzo imodeli yeshishini esekwe ekuphindaphindeni [ngekwalk](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Catwalk) iintsingiselo kunye nefashoni ephezulu yoyilo, kunye nokuyivelisa ngobuninzi ngexabiso eliphantsi.

Wikipedia, ngoJanuwari 2021

Kuyinyani. Imfashini ekhawulezileyo ngokwenene yimveliso ekhawulezayo yesinxibo ekopa iintsingiselo zefashoni kwivenkile yokubaleka. Iimpahla zenzelwe abathengisi ngexabiso eliphantsi kwaye zithengiswe ngobuninzi be-Intanethi nakwizitrato eziphakamileyo kwihlabathi liphela. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, unolwazi.

Nangona kunjalo, ngelixa ezi ngcaciso zichanekile, kodwa nazo aziphelelanga. Yonke into isilela kwinto yesine, ngokukodwa, into yokuxhaphaza. Abathengisi bazama nzima ukuyifihla, kwaye uninzi lwethu luzama ngokulinganayo kunzima ukuyityeshela. Kodwa xa iimpahla ziveliswa ngokukhawuleza kwaye ngexabiso eliphantsi, ziveliswa ngokuxhaphaza.

"Ngoba?" "Njani?" Kwaye "ndisengazithanda iimpahla nditsiba ukuxhaphaza?" Ndiyakuva utsho. Ewe, kubo bonke abazinikeleyo beedenim, abalandeli abanomdla kunye nabathandi be lycra, yile bhlog yakho.

Yintoni ephosakeleyo ngeFashoni ekhawulezayo?

Iindleko zoLuntu: Ukuxhaphaza kunye nokufa

Indawo yeSakhiwo seRana Plaza, 2013. Umthombo: nyusternbhr, Flickr

Ukuthetha ngokubanzi, singasebenzisa ukutsiba okukhulu kwezoqoqosho ukucacisa indlela yefashoni ekhawulezayo eya kumandla- Inguquko yezoShishino, kunye notyhilo lwamva lwehlabathi kwi-neoliberalism.

Kwinkulungwane ye-18, i-Industrial Revolution yabona oomatshini bempahla bebeka impahla kwimizi yabo beyigaya kunye neefektri. E-UK, inani elikhulu labasetyhini abahlwempuzekileyo, amadoda kunye nabantwana baba ngabasebenzi emva koshishino olukhulayo 'lweempahla ezilungiselelwe'. Ngokubila 'ngabasebenzi, abanini mveliso bababhatala imivuzo ephantsi ngendlela engathethekiyo, banyanzelisa ixesha elongezelelekileyo lokugcina kunye nokugcina iimeko zokusebenza ezixineneyo. Ngalo lonke elixesha, izinto ezingafunekiyo ezifunekayo kolu tshintsho kwinkqubo yemveliso 'zithunyelwa ngaphandle' kwiikholoni, apho ubukhoboka buqinisekisa ngexabiso eliphantsi, umsebenzi ongapheliyo.

Ukutsiba siye phambili kumakhulu amabini eminyaka kwaye sizifumana siphakathi kokuya ngokwanda kwehlabathi, i-neoliberal nineties. Oku kuzise inkqubo etshintsha ngokukhawuleza yokuvelisa iimpahla kwihlabathi liphela. Ukusebenza ngokunyuka kweemfuno zabathengi kunye nezivumelwano ezitsha zasimahla zorhwebo, iimveliso zasentshona zaqala ukutshintsha imveliso phesheya. Baqesha abavelisi, abathi bona baqeshe iikontraki, baqesha iikontraki ezincinci, abaqeshe abasebenzi beempahla kwi-Global South. Iziseko zokuvelisa ezinkulu zeemveliso zasentshona zenziwa kumazwe anabasebenzi abambalwa kunye nemigaqo embalwa, kwaye oku 'kuthengiswa kwempahla' kuthetha ukungafihli nto kumagama amakhulu anokubaleka, ngamanye amaxesha ngokoqobo.

Njengoko oku kukhutshwa kuqhubeka namhlanje, abasebenzi bethu beempahla bavalelwe kugqatso olubi ukuya ezantsi. Iifektri kulo lonke elase-Asia eseMpuma, eLatin America, eMpuma Yurophu nase-Asiya zisakhuphisana ukuphumelela izivumelwano ezingaphantsi zabathengisi basentshona. Uninzi lwabantu abaninzi (malunga nama-80%) zeengubo zehlabathi ngabasetyhini, kwaye ucalucalulo ngokwesini luxhaphakile. Iindima zesuphavayiza ezihlawulwa ngeyure zihlala zihlala emadodeni, ngelixesha abantu ababhinqileyo behlawulwa iziqwenga, bahlala bephathwa gadalala ngokwasemzimbeni nangokwasemzimbeni, kwaye bevinjwa izibonelelo zokhuseleko loluntu.

Umsebenzi wabantwana awuqhelekanga, okanye iimeko ezisongela ubomi okanye iintsuku ezingama-20. Abanini bemizi-mveliso batyhala imivuzo isezantsi, banyanzelisa ixesha elongezelelekileyo, kwaye bagcina iimeko zicocekile, ezimbi kakhulu, zibulalayo. Abanye banokubiza oku kuphuculwa kokusebenza kakuhle. Kungcono ukubiza ukubila 2.0. Ngeli xesha, lihambile jikelele.

Iindleko zengqondo: Ukuxhomekeka

'Stylish' woman wearing sunglasses holding many shopping bags in bothhands against a white background.

Umthombo: Unsplash

Imfashini ekhawulezayo, ngokuqinisekileyo, iyakhobokisa.

Izifundo zibonisile ukuba xa sibheja ngesivumelwano esitsha, indlela yomvuzo we-dopamine kwingqondo iyenziwa. I-Dopamine yi-neurotransmitter yokuziva ulungile enxulunyaniswa neziyobisi ekutshayeni, kwiziyobisi nakwicaffeine. Njengoko iimpahla ziye zitshiphu kwaye ziyafumaneka ngakumbi, linethuba lokufumana idosi yedopamine yokulutha.

Ukulahlekiswa, umzekelo, ithi ngokuzingca kwiwebhusayithi yayo ukuba ikhupha malunga nezitayile ezintsha ze-1000 ngeveki-ilahlekile ngokwenene. Ukutshintsha ubuninzi besitokhwe, iimveliso zidlala imidlalo yengqondo. Benza imiboniso yentengiso evuselelayo, edumileyo. Benza umbono wobuxoki ngokungxamiseka ngokuthengisa kunye nokutshintsha ubeko lwevenkile rhoqo, beka izinto ezingabizi ecaleni kwezi zibiza kakhulu ukwenza umbono wobuxoki wexabiso. Basebenzisana 'nokuthenga ngoku, ukuhlawula kamva' ii -apps ukukhuthaza inkcitho engxamisekileyo, njalo njalo. Kukuziphatha kwengqondo kwezengqondo 101. Iziphumo: ukunyanzelwa kwabathengi kunye nokukhawuleza kweziyobisi kwifashoni.

Ngelixa iimveliso zisenza ukuba sifune ukuchitha ngaphezulu, iimpahla zabo ezisemgangathweni ezisemgangathweni ziqinisa isidingo sethu sokwenza oko. Kule mihla, iimpahla ziyilelwe ukuba zilahlwe, kwaye ngokukhawuleza. Iinkcukacha-manani zibonisa ukuba umthengi ophakathi waseMelika ngoku unezambatho eziphindwe kahlanu kunangoku ngo-1980. Ngengubo ezintlanu ezikhawulezayo zefashoni ezivelisiweyo, ezilinganayo ezintathu ziphela kwiindawo zokulahla inkunkuma okanye zitshiswe zingaphantsi konyaka.

Ukusebenzisa amagama oqoqosho u-Tim Jackson, sizifumana singene nzulu kwinkqubo apho:

Abantu bayacengwa ukuba bachithe imali esingenayo, kwizinto esingazidingiyo, ukwenza umbono ongazukuhlala, kubantu esingakhathaliyo ngabo.

Sisicatshulwa esihle, apho kufuneka ndenze uhlengahlengiso olunye nje. Inye indawo apho inkcitho yethu ishiya umbono ongapheliyo, kwaye yileyo sonke sixhomekeke kuyo - kwikhaya lethu, iplanethi yoMhlaba.

Iindleko zeNdalo esingqongileyo: Intlekele

Melting icebergs on an ocean.

Umthombo: IiPexels

Ukusuka kwisivuno somqhaphu ukuya ngaphezulu kwezityalo, inyathelo ngalinye elithathwa yifama ukusuka kwifama ukuya kumkhosi unefuthe elikhulu kwindalo esingqongileyo. Xa iboniswa kumgangatho wevenkile ogcinwe ngononophelo, kunokuba nzima ukuthelekelela ukulima, iifektri kunye nokuhamba ngesikhephe ngasemva kweempahla zethu. Nangona kunjalo iimpembelelo zale nkqubo zinkulu kwaye zifikelela ngokubanzi. Ukusuka ekusetyenzisweni kwepetroli, ukungcoliseka komlambo, ukuphela kweenkqubo zamanzi amatsha, imveliso enkulu yenkunkuma, iiplastiki zolwandle, umonakalo uya usanda.

Imo iyatshintsha

Image shows a line of smoke plumes from factories set against a yellowsunset with powerlines in theforeground.

Umthombo: IiPexels

Ngoku kushushu kakhulu kwiplanethi yethu yasekhaya kunokuba ibineminyaka eli-12,000 ubuncinci. Oku, akukho nxalenye incinci, enkosi kushishino lwefashoni lwehlabathi.

Amalaphu athambileyo kwimibala ehle kakhulu ye-pastel akakhwaze kwangoko ioyile kunye namalahle, kodwa ziziseko apho uninzi lweempahla zethu zakhiwe khona. Imicu eyenziwayo eyandayo eveliswayo kusetyenziswa amalahle kunye nepetroleum. Ngelixa besebenzisa amanzi amancinci kunabalingani babo bendalo, amandla afunekayo kunye ne-CO2 ekhutshiweyo iphezulu.

Iintsinga zokwenziwa nazo ziyangcolisa. Njengeplastikhi esekwe kwioyile, ipholiyesta ayenzi i-biodegrade njengeentsinga zendalo. Inokuhlala kwindawo yenkunkuma yokulahla inkunkuma kangangamakhulu eminyaka. Xa zihlanjwa, imicu eyenziweyo iyaphalaza kwaye ekugqibeleni iphelela emanzini kunye naseelwandle njengemicu microplastic. Njengoko isantya esiphezulu, imfashini enexabiso eliphantsi sele ilawula, kunjalo ke nokusetyenziswa kwefayibha yexabiso eliphantsi efana ne-polyester. Ukuba ujonga i-t-shirt yakho ngoku, kunethuba eliphezulu lokuba udlala ubuncinci be-synth-ngoku kuqikelelwa ukuba yenza i-60% yeengubo kwihlabathi liphela.

Njengoko kusenziwa iimpahla, zinokuhamba amaxesha amaninzi kwihlabathi liphela phambi kokuba bade baye eshelufini. Uqikelelo lubonisa ukuba ishishini lefashini yempembelelo yecarbon inefuthe lekhabhoni enkulu kune Aviation and Maritime Shipping zidityanisiwe. Yonke itoni entsha yale khabhoni ikhutshiweyo ityhala iqondo lobushushu behlabathi ngokunyuka kufutshane nomda we-1.5 ° C - indlela esele sibona kuyo umonakalo ongenakulungiswa.

Ilahleko yezinto eziphilayo

Ukusuka kwiminenga emikhulu ukuya kwiibhaktheriya ezincinci, iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zomhlaba zinika kwaye zigcina ubomi kwiplanethi yethu. Ukanti siphulukana neqondo elothusayo. Imfashini yezolimo enomdla kakhulu kwezolimo idlala indima enkulu koku kutshatyalaliswa.

Njengokuba imfuno yempahla inyukile, kukwanjalo nakwimfuno yengeniso ephezulu kunye nezityalo ezikhula ngokukhawuleza. Oku kukhokelele kutshintsho oluphawuleka kakhulu kwezolimo, olutshabalalisa izityalo nezilwanyana ezohlukeneyo.

Ukuvelisa ingeniso ephezulu yomqhaphu ngoku efunwa kukuthengwa kwefashoni okukhawulezayo, amafama asebenzisa imichiza enetyhefu ngokugqithisileyo. Zonke ezi zinto kodwa ziyaziphelisa izinto eziphilayo ezifana nefungi, izinambuzane okanye ukhula. Zingcolisa umhlaba namanzi angqongileyo. Batshabalalisa inani lezinambuzane, banciphise ukuchuma komhlaba, batyhefe iinkqubo zasemanzini kwaye [bazishiye zonke kodwa zingenabomi](https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=ENV/WKP(2020)2& docLanguage= En). Itshantliziyo lezendalo kunye nomphengululi uVandana Shiva ulebhula amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ‘njenge-narcotic ye-ecology’ njengoko isityalo sisifumana, kokukhona kuxhomekeke kubo.

Uluntu

Image shows boy washing clothes in river stained with dyes, view fromabove.

E-China, isiqhulo esithi ungachaza umbala we "it" wexesha ngokujonga umbala wemilambo - isiqhulo esithi, ngoku, ngokuqinisekileyo siphulukene noburharha.

Iminyaka, iindlela zamanzi ezakha zasebenza njengegazi lobomi boluntu kuyo yonke iAsia ziye zathwaxwa kukungaphezi okungafunekiyo kwamanzi amdaka avela kwiidayi, isinyithi esinzima kunye nezinye izinto eziyityhefu kwimizi-mveliso yeempahla. Ekhohlo ngaphandle kokukhetha, abahlali bayaqhubeka nokusebenzisa la manzi ukusela nokuhlamba. Izifo ezifana nomhlaza, isisu kunye nezifo zolusu zigqugqisile, kodwa ziyaqhubeka zingaziwa ziimpawu ezingcolisayo.

Kwaye ayisiyongxaki yokusebenzisa amanzi kuphela, kodwa nokusetyenziswa kwamanzi, echaphazela uluntu olusemngciphekweni. Ifashoni ekhawulezayo inxaniwe ngendlela emangalisayo. Ukwenza isikipa esinye esisisiseko somqhaphu, uqikelelo lubonisa ukuba luthatha [malunga nama-2,700 eelitha zamanzi](https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/the-impact-of-a-cotton-t-shirt#:~:text =Amazingly%2C%20it%20can%20take%202%2C700,of%20our%20total%20water%20footprint.). Oko kungaphezulu kokulingana neebhafu ezingama-25 zamanzi kuyo yonke i-T-shirt yomqhaphu onayo.

Ukuthabatha umzekelo ocacileyo ngokukhawuleza, uLwandle iAral eUzbekistan yayikade ilichibi lesine ngobukhulu emhlabeni, engqongwe ngabantu abalobayo kunye namahlathi aluhlaza kunye nemigxobhozo. Ukugcina ishishini lokuthumela iimpahla elizweni lonke, ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yama-20, uRhulumente waqala ukujika amanzi akhe afreshi ukunkcenkceshela izityalo zomqhaphu kunye nokugcina imveliso ekhulayo yomqhaphu. Abalobi baphulukana nobomi. Ungcoliseko lwetyuwa nothuli olusuka kwibhedi yedike lubangele iingxaki zempilo ngokubanzi.

Ngo-2014, i-NASA yakhupha imifanekiso eyoyikisayo ebonisa ukuba uLwandle lwaluphelile. Ngelixa inyathelo lokubuyisela ngenyameko amanzi abuya kancinci kancinci, uluntu lwasekhaya luseneengxaki. Ukungaqeshwa kuphezulu ngelixa amawaka ehlupheka kwizifo zokuphefumla kunye neempembelelo zexesha elide kwezempilo.

Ariel shot of the Areal Sea - a large, dried outlake

I-Aral Sea, e-Uzbekistan, phantse yomile ngokupheleleyo ngenxa yokunkcenkceshela ngomqhaphu. Imvelaphi ye-NASA yokujonga umhlaba

INkunkuma yeMpahla

Image shows a massive landfill site that dwarfs surroundingtrees.

Iintaba zeNkunkuma yeNkunkuma. Imvelaphi

Inkqubo yethu yefashoni ibangela iitoni kunye neetoni zelaphu ukuba zilahlwe, zitshiswe okanye zilahlwe kwindawo yokulahla inkunkuma. Ama-73% ezinto ezingena kwinkqubo yempahla . Iziseko zoyilo zihlala zihlala kumazwe aseNtshona ngaphakathi kwe-EU okanye e-US, ngelixa iziseko zemveliso zikumazantsi ehlabathi. Oku kuthetha ukuba iimpazamo, ukungaqondani kunye nokuprintwa gwenxa kuyinto eqhelekileyo. Rhoqo iibhetshi ezipheleleyo ziyalahlwa kude ngaphambi kokuba kunxitywe ngaphandle kwempahla.

Emva kwenqaku lentengiso, izinto azingcono kakhulu. Iingubo ezikumgangatho ophantsi zithetha ukuba iimpahla kufuneka zitshintshwe ngokukhawuleza, kwaye amaxesha ngamaxesha kunokuba zingakhathali. Phantse iipesenti ezingama-85 zabantu baseMelika abazisebenzisayo bathunyelwa kwiindawo zokulahla inkunkuma emva kokusetyenziswa, endaweni yokuba iphinde ithengiswe okanye iphinde iphinde iphinde isetyenziswe.

Rhoqo ii-brand zikhuthaza ngenkuthalo lo mjikelo wokulahlwa, ukuze kutshintshwe isitokhwe esininzi. Ngo-2017 nango-2018, iimveliso ezifana ne H&M, Burberry kunye neNike zavezwa kwiintaba ezivuthayo ezingathengiswanga oku kuye kwabangwa ukuba zininzi kangangeetoni ezili-19 zeempahla ezingasasebenziyo, okanye ezilingana ne-50,000 yeebhulukhwe zeejini. Kwinkqubo apho iintaba zeengubo ezinganxitywanga zitshisiwe zaze zahlulwa, ngelixa inkqubo eyazivelisayo itshabalalisa ubomi, kuyacaca ukuba kukho into engalunganga kwaphela.

Ifashoni ekhawulezileyo: Sinokuyiphepha njani?

Image shows a woman standing behind a clothes rail in a second-hand shopbrowsing.

Umthombo: Unsplash

Kudla ngokuthiwa ukuba besinokuyeka nje ukuthenga iimpahla ezininzi kangaka, yonke into iyakutshintsha. Ngelixa le nto inento yenyaniso, ikwasebenza ekususeni ityala kwiimveliso zamazwe ngamazwe ezinamandla amakhulu. Ewe, sinokwenza utshintsho olubalulekileyo njengabantu ngabanye, kodwa khange sidale ngxaki. Ewe, imikhwa yethu yokuthenga kufuneka itshintshe, kodwa amandla ethu njengabathengi adlulela ngaphaya koko.

Utshintsho lomntu ngamnye alusoloko lulula, kodwa kubalulekile ukuba ukhumbule ukuba akukho mntu 'ngummandla wezendalo' ogqibeleleyo. Ukwenza okusemandleni akho kunye nokutyhala imida yakho yobuqu ukuze uphile amaxabiso akho kunye nokwenza utshintsho ofuna ukulibona kubalulekile.

Imfashini ekhawulezayo yinkomo enkulu yokubulala, kodwa njengabathengi kunye nabemi sinemigca emininzi yokuhlaselwa. Ukuba uziva uphefumlelwe ukuba wenze, Nazi iziphakamiso ezimbalwa zokukuqala:

  1. Ukufuna ukungafihlisi - Ukuba awukwazi ukucinga ngobomi ngaphandle kokuthenga; Fumana ulwazi kwaye uhlanganise. Thatha inxaxheba kwiphulo leNguquko yeFashoni #whomademyclothes kwaye ulwe nenkqubo evala uninzi lwabasebenzi kwimisebenzi engahlawulelwanga, yokuxhaphaza neyingozi. Funda unyaka nonyaka i-Transparency Index, ukuxhasa ezona ntengiso zizinzileyo kwaye ubambe abanye baphendule. Umkhangeli weFashoni ngumthombo omkhulu ekuvumela ukuba ujonge naluphi na uphawu, umvuzo ophilayo, ukungafihli kunye nokuzibophelela koluntu okwenziweyo.

  2. Thatha isibambiso se-30 yokunxiba- Xa uthenga into yento 'Ngaba ndiyayidinga le nto? Ndiza kuyinxiba amaxesha angama-30? Ngaba ikumgangatho ophezulu kwaye ngaba iza kuhlala ikho? ’Jonga umgangatho wempahla ngaphambi kokuba uyithenge. Cofa apha ukuze ufumane isikhokelo esineenkcukacha indlela yokwenza.

  3. Ivenkile yesibini ngesandla-Izixeko ezininzi ngoku zinabantu abanentengiso yevenkile yeediliya kunye neyesintu, ngelixa amaqonga afana ne Depop anikezela ukufikelela kwiintlobo ngeentlobo zeempahla ezisetyenzisiweyo kunye nezokuvunwa. . Enye i-Depop esekwe e-UK i-Esooko ibonelela ngempahla yesandla yesibini impahla kunye nemali eya kubaphembeleli bezendalo.

  4. Ukulungisa, ukunxiba kwakhona, ukuphinda usebenzise kwakhona, ukurenta-Ukucwangcisa ukutshintsha iimpahla. Musa ukulahla iimpahla, fumana umthungi kwindawo yakho, okanye ubone ukuba unako ukuhamba ngokwakho. Nikela ngeempahla ezindala kwisisa. Qasha iimpahla ozifunayo kwizihlandlo ezikhulu- Qeshisa iRunway yeyona yaziwayo. NguJikelezo lelinye iqonga lase-UK elisekwe eontanga eliququzelela ukwabiwa kweempahla zabantu, ngakumbi nangakumbi, ukunxiba imihla ngemihla.

    Kwaye okokugqibela, kwaye okona kubaluleke ... Imvukelo!-Iimpawu zeFashoni ezikhawulezayo azisokuze zibandakanyeke kutshintsho lwenkqubo ngaphandle kokuba umthetho uyabanyanzela, kodwa ifashoni ekhawulezileyo isezantsi kwi-ajenda yezopolitiko. Bafuna inyathelo likarhulumente. Joyina i-XR, wenze ingxolo kwaye wenze umahluko.


About the Rebellion

Ukutshabalala Kwemvukelo Ukupheliswa kwemvukelo yintshukumo esasazekileyo, yamazwe ngamazwe kunye nezopolitiko ezingathathi cala zisebenzisa inyathelo elingenabundlobongela ngokuthe ngqo nokungathobeli eluntwini ukweyisela oorhulumente ukuba benze ngokuchanekileyo kwiMo yezulu neNgxakeko yeNdalo. Yiba yinxalenye …or consider making a donation.

Yenziwe ngothando nangomsindo yi-XR Global Support Ukupheliswa kwemvukelo (i-XR) yintshukumo yokwenza kunye kunye. Yonke uyilo kunye nomsebenzi wobugcisa ungasetyenziselwa ukuthengisa ngenjongo yokugcina umhlaba. Oku akuthethi ukuba wenze ukuthengiswa kwentengiso okanye uthumele i-XR ipesenti yentengiso yakho. Asikhuthazi okanye senze nayiphi na intengiso kwaye siya kulandela kwaye sitshutshise nabani na owenzayo. Uphawu lokuCinywa lwayilwa ngo-2011 ligcisa lasesitalatweni i-ESP, eboleka ukusetyenziswa kweXR ngendlela efanayo: www.extinctionsymbol.info